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Yeni gelenler için SSH erişimi

OpenWrt idare yöntemlerinden biri SSH üzerinden komut-satırı arayüzü'dür. OpenWrt varsayılan olarak 22/tcp portunu gelen SSH bağlantıları için dinler. Yönlendiricine “ssh ile bağlanmak” için, yönlendiricinin genellikle 192.168.1.1 olan LAN IP adresini kullanarak takip eden komutu bir uçbirim öykünücüye girebilirsin:

ssh root@192.168.1.1

Yönlendiricine ilk ssh bağlantısı kurduğunda, muhtemelen RSA anahtar parmakizi hakkında bir uyarı göreceksin. Eğer bunun senin OpenWrt aygıtının adresi olduğuna eminsen, sadece yes yazıp Enter'a bas. Sonra yonlendiricine verdiğin parolayı gir, veya bu başlangıç kurulumuysa Enter'a bas. İşte bir örnek oturum:

$ ssh root@192.168.1.1                                                    <== Sen bunu yazarsın
The authenticity of host '192.168.1.1 (192.168.1.1)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is SHA256:4VbDA/MOc7inPiyllF5f0r3Q6iEx89ddKdhLGBovsiY.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes                <== ve bunu
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.1' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@192.168.1.1's password:                                              <== ve buraya parolayı

BusyBox v1.28.4 () built-in shell (ash)

  _______                     ________        __
 |       |.-----.-----.-----.|  |  |  |.----.|  |_
 |   -   ||  _  |  -__|     ||  |  |  ||   _||   _|
 |_______||   __|_____|__|__||________||__|  |____|
          |__| W I R E L E S S   F R E E D O M
 -----------------------------------------------------
 OpenWrt 18.06.2, r7676-cddd7b4c77
 -----------------------------------------------------

root@OpenWrt:~#                                                           <== sonraki komutu buraya yaz

Yönlendiricindeki ssh oturumunu sonlandırmak için, exit yaz ve Enter'a bas.

Bu sayfanın geri kalanı Linux, macOS, veya Windows'un OpenWrt aygıtına bağlanmak için kullanabileceği çeşitli uçbirim öykünücüleri tanımlar.

Tüm Linux dağıtımları varsayılan kurulumlarının parçası olarak bir komutsatırı ssh istemcisi sağlarlar.

  1. Bir uçbirim öykünücü aç ve ssh root@192.168.1.1 yaz (“ssh” komut, “root” bağlanmakta olduğun OpenWrt kullanıcısı, ve “192.168.1.1” OpenWrt varsayılan IP adresi)
  2. İlk ssh hağlantısında OpenWrt'den yeni bir anahtar kabul etmek hakkında bir mesaj ve soru olacak, “yes” yazıp Enter tuşuna bas.
    1. Eğer bir nedenle OpenWrt'yi yeniden yüklediysen cihazın anahtarı değişmiş olacak ve önceden kaydedilen anahtarla uyuşmazlık hakkında bir hata alacaksın. Hata eski anahtarı silip devam etmek için komut-satırına yazılabilecek komutu bildirecek.
  3. Oturumu kapatmak istersen “exit” yaz

Ayrıca Linux genellikle varsayılan yüklü olabilecek veya olmayabilecek SCP/SFT istemcilerine (OpenWrt'de dosyaları açmak/düzenlemek/aşağı veya yukarı yüklemek için) de sahiptir, Nerede olduklarını ve güncel yüklenme durumlarını öğrenmek üzere “scp” ve “sftp” için dağıtımının belgelendirmesini yoklamalı veya paket yönetici arayüzünle arama yapmalısın. Komut satırı SCP istemcisi için scp kılavuzu(ing)'nu oku veya kullanmayı öğreten öğretici klavuzları ördeğe aratabilirsin.

Midnight Commander uçbirimde çalışan, metin temelli bir dosya yöneticisidir. OpenWrt'deki uzak dosyalara mc ile erişebilirsiniz:

  1. 'F9'\'a basın
  2. 'Sol' panel ayarlarını seçin
  3. Kabuk bağlantısı(Shell link)'nı seçin
  4. root@192.168.1.1/ girin ve TAMAM seçin and press OK
  5. Şimdi OpenWrt dosyalarını ve dizinlerini göreceksiniz

Dahili olarak scp benzeri FISH protokolü üzerinden çalışır bu sayede yüklenmiş SFTP sunuçusu gerektirmez.

Windows Terminal for Windows 10 or the legacy ConHost (both giving access to Windows PowerShell, Windows Command Prompt, WSL Bash), PuTTY, MinGW (installed together with Git), Cmder, SmarTTY, and WinSCP are terminal emulators that allow you to SSH into an OpenWrt router.

Both Windows PowerShell and Command Prompt allows using the default Windows 10 SSH client. That SSH client is an optional windows feature and has to be enabled.

If you have installed a WSL distribution, the SSH client is usually preinstalled in there.

If you directly launch cmd.exe, powershell.exe or wsl.exe the legacy ConHost terminal will open. Otherwise, you can install the modern Windows Terminal from the store and select any of these shells from there.

  1. Open any of the above terminal emulators and write ssh root@192.168.1.1 (“ssh” is the command, “root” is the OpenWrt user you are connecting to, and “192.168.1.1” is OpenWrt default IP)
  2. there will be a message about accepting a new key from the OpenWrt device, write “yes” and press Enter key.
    1. If for some reason you have reinstalled OpenWrt the device will have a different key and you get an error about key mismatch. The error will state what is the command line to copy-paste in your terminal to delete the old key and proceed. Do it and retry.
  3. if you want to close the session, write “exit”

The Windows 10 optional SSH feature also includes SCP client (to open/edit/download/upload files in OpenWrt via SSH). Try google for some SCP tutorials to learn how to use it. Otherwise, use WinSCP which is way easier for SCP purposes.

Powershell provides SSH access.

The Windows Subsystem for Linux is a convenient way to run a Linux environment of your choice including most,command-line tools, utilities, and applications directly on Windows. For detailed steps of how to install WSL on Windows 10, refer to Microsoft's documentation: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wsl/install-win10

PuTTY gives you command-line access to OpenWrt.

  1. Download PuTTY, get the 32bit putty.exe from the Alternative binary files section.
  2. Start putty.exe on your Windows client → PuTTY's login window pops up.
  3. go to the Session category of PuTTY's login window, look for the field Host Name (or IP address) and simply enter the IP-address (e.g. 192.168.1.1) of your OpenWrt device, keep the default provided port 22.
  4. Click the Open button at the Bottom to open a connection. This will pop up a shell windows, asking to login as. Login as root with the OpenWrt password you have defined some time before. If you have not yet set a password yet on “root”, you will not be asked for the password.
  5. Done, you are logged into the OpenWrt command line.

Setting up key-based authentication.

  1. Generate a key pair using puttygen.exe. Save the private key to the PC and add the public key to /etc/dropbear/authorized_keys on your OpenWrt device.
  2. Connection → SSH → Auth: In the box “Authentication Parameters” under “Private key file for Authentication” state the path to your private key file for this connection (e.g. the openwrt.ppk file you created before). Best is to click “Browse…” and select the file via the file dialog.

Automating connections.

  1. Connection → Data: In the box “Login details” enter the “Auto-login username” which is root.
  2. Load, save or delete a stored session, enter openwrt.lan in Saved Sessions and click the Save button.
  3. To make a PuTTY shortcut with an automatic login, create one and append the saved session with an @ sign, for example call PuTTY with: putty.exe @openwrt.lan

WinSCP allows you to browse the OpenWrt file system in Windows Exlorer like GUI-style.

  1. Download WinSCP, get the non-beta Installation package or portable executables and install or unzip them on your Windows client
  2. Start WinSCP.exe on your Windows client, WinSCP's login window will pop up
  3. Click on New Site on the left, then enter your OpenWrt device IP address (192.168.1.1) on the right side into Host name, keep the default port 22. In User name enter root, in Password, enter your root password (or leave blank, if you have not set a password yet)
  4. Click the Login at the bottom of the Window.
  5. Done. You now have an Exlorer-like view of your OpenWrt file system.

Editing OpenWrt config files with WinSCP's integrated GUI editor.

  1. To edit an OpenWrt config file with WinSCP's GUI-based editor, just right-click the file in WinSCP and select Edit from the context menu.

Cmder for Windows is an open-source terminal emulator that runs on Windows. It is free to use and provides an easy “command line shell” that allows you to ssh into OpenWrt. Its attractive fonts and color scheme are easy on the eyes. The Full distribution is preferred (over the mini distribution), since it provides a bash emulation, with a Unix-y suite of commands.

  1. Download Cmder.
  2. Unzip the cmder.zip file.
  3. Open the Cmder folder, and double-click the Cmder icon. You'll see a Cmder window open similar to the image below.
  4. To ssh into the OpenWrt router at 192.168.1.1, type ssh root@192.168.1.1 then press Return.

SmarTTY gives you command line access to OpenWrt and allows you to open/edit/download/upload files in OpenWrt, and is overall more modern and user-friendly than PuTTY (another tool detailed below).

  1. Download SmarTTY, choose “download” for the installer, or “portable version” if you want it as a standalone program that works without installation.
  2. after installation or after unzipping the archive, doubleclick on SmarTTY executable file.
  3. You will be greeted by a window with two choices, doubleclick on “setup a new SSH connection” (the other option is for serial connections, for usb-TTL dongles and somesuch you connect to the device's debug serial pins on the board, we won't use that now).
  4. The window changes into the SSH setup, write the following info:
    1. Host name: OpenWrt device IP address (default is 192.168.1.1 )
    2. User Name: root (this is the “administrator” and only user in default OpenWrt)
    3. Password: leave this blank for your first connection, then write the password you set up (either in Luci GUI or after your first SSH access)
  5. Click “Connect” button at the bottom, and you will now see a big terminal screen coming up
  6. A default OpenWrt firmware lacks the server component to allow you to open/edit/view/upoad/download files in SmarTTY, so after you have connected to the internet write opkg update && opkg install openssh-sftp-server to install it. If the next step fails, it might be necessary to reboot the OpenWrt device for this new service to start up properly.
  7. Now you can click on File → Open a Remote File to open a popup that shows the file system of the OpenWrt device, and you can navigate in it and open text files for example as normal (they will open in a SmarTTY text editor window)
  8. If you want to upload or download files to/from a specific folder in the device, you can click on SCP menu and choose the most appropriate action from there.

After the first time you connected to a device, SmarTTY saved a profile, so you can connect again to the same device (at that IP address with that password) by just doubleclicking its icon on the first window you see when starting SmarTTY. You can right-click on this profile icon to edit it again, if needed.

On macOS (formerly Mac OSX) any terminal emulator will allow you to ssh.

  1. Terminal - The macOS built-in terminal program, find it in /Applications/Utilities.
  2. iTerm2 a much-enhanced terminal program, donation-ware - it's worth it.

To ssh into your OpenWrt router at 192.168.1.1, type ssh root@192.168.1.1, then press Return.

On Chrome OS, Secure Shell App will allow you to ssh.

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  • Last modified: 2021/04/08 13:40
  • by sorcun