OpenWrt in QEMU

QEMU is an an open source processor emulator (and virtualizer). This document describes how to run OpenWrt in QEMU. If you are looking to use OpenWrt as a QEMU host, see Running QEMU guests on OpenWrt.

It is mixed descriptions from Windows and Linux, so please read through all of it before starting.

:!: Choosing different emulation settings can affect performance greatly.

Example: 30s iperf-s@openwrt (QEMU running on host) to host

ne2k_pci:0.0-31.3 sec  14.6 MBytes  3.92 Mbits/sec
pcnet: 0.0-30.0 sec  2.38 GBytes   682 Mbits/sec
e1000: 0.0-30.0 sec  6.23 GBytes  1.79 Gbits/sec
vmxnet3: 0.0-30.0 sec  8.67 GBytes  2.48 Gbits/sec
virtio-net-pci:  0.0-30.0 sec  44.6 GBytes  12.8 Gbits/sec
  • FIXME Trunk: test kernel image with rootfs
  • FIXME Trunk: use SD card with rootfs, NFS rootfs, NBD rootfs
  • FIXME Trunk: no sound, pcibus, USB emulation in QEMU possible?

QEMU runs on many different systems.

Many Linux distributions like Debian, Ubuntu, SUSE, and Fedora provide a QEMU package in their package repositories.

Example for Debian 9 (Stretch):

sudo apt-get install qemu

:!: QEMU is rapidly developing so features and syntax might change between versions.

The QEMU Wiki Links page provides you with several unofficial download links of Windows builds.

Use homebrew. The homebrew qemu page provides variants for different hardware and MacOS versions.

The current platform meant for use with QEMU for emulating an ARM system is armvirt. In newer versions (TODO: which?) the platform to use is armsr The platform is available in the downloads.

This is the simplest method that can be used to test an image. However, it runs entirely in RAM: any modification made is lost upon reboot.

To use this boot method, here with 64 MB of RAM, run:

qemu-system-arm -nographic -M virt -m 64 -kernel openwrt-armvirt-zImage-initramfs

aarch64 is used by many modern Arm CPUs. The instruction set is called armv8. The target is armvirt 64 variant.

qemu-system-aarch64 -m 1024 -smp 2 -cpu cortex-a57 -M virt -nographic \
-kernel openwrt-19.07.3-armvirt-64-Image-initramfs \
-drive if=none,file=disk.img,id=hd0 -device virtio-blk-device,drive=hd0

Here's an example with network interface and persistent storage:

qemu-system-aarch64 --enable-kvm -M virt -nographic -nodefaults \
-m 128 \
-cpu host -smp 2 \
-kernel openwrt-armvirt-64-Image -append "root=fe00" \
-blockdev driver=raw,node-name=hd0,,file.driver=file,file.filename=openwrt-armvirt-64-root.ext4 \
-device virtio-blk-pci,drive=hd0 \
-netdev type=tap,id=nic1,ifname=kvm0,script=no,downscript=no \
-device virtio-net-pci,disable-legacy=on,disable-modern=off,netdev=nic1,mac=ba:ad:1d:ea:01:02 \
-device qemu-xhci,id=xhci,p2=8,p3=8 \
-device usb-host,vendorid=0x7392,productid=0x7822
  • kernel without initrd will automatically attempt to mount ext4 partition, but it has to be told where it is with the -append “root=fe00” parameter (if you don't specify this, the kernel will list available block devices and reboot)
  • -blockdev followed by -device is the new way of specifying block devices in qemu - I could've used -drive, but I copied most of the config from elsewhere
  • -netdev binds a virtual NIC to host tap interface kvm0, which should be created before starting qemu; if you need multiple NICs, just copy the -netdev and -device virtion-net-pci lines and adjust ifname (tap device on host), id (device id, ties -netdev and -device together) and mac address
  • last two lines add a USB3 controller and attach a physical USB WiFi dongle to the VM

It is possible to use native virtualisation on Apple arm64 hardware under MacOS (high performance variant)

The target is armvirt 64 variant

Non-persistent variant (with openwrt-armvirt-64-Image-initramfs):

qemu-system-aarch64 -m 1024 -smp 2 -cpu host -M virt,highmem=off \
-nographic \
-accel hvf \
-kernel openwrt-armvirt-64-Image-initramfs \
-device virtio-net,netdev=net0 -netdev user,id=net0,net=,hostfwd=tcp: \
-device virtio-net,netdev=net1 -netdev user,id=net1,net=

Persistent (squashfs) variant (with openwrt-armvirt-64-Image and openwrt-armvirt-64-rootfs-squashfs.img):

qemu-system-aarch64 -m 1024 -smp 2 -cpu host -M virt,highmem=off \
-nographic \
-accel hvf \
-kernel openwrt-armvirt-64-Image \
-drive file=openwrt-armvirt-64-rootfs-squashfs.img,format=raw,if=virtio \
-append root=/dev/vda \
-device virtio-net,netdev=net0 -netdev user,id=net0,net=,hostfwd=tcp: \
-device virtio-net,netdev=net1 -netdev user,id=net1,net=

Both variants provide two network interfaces to OpenWrt:

  1. eth0 (LAN)
  2. eth1 (WAN). qemu dhcp-server will allocate IP address for OpenWrt host and provide IPv4 Internet access

To access OpenWrt via SSH from host:

ssh -p1122 root@

It is possible to connect from OpenWrt guest to host by IP (via eth0) or (via eth1)

:!: Use QEMU >= 2.2 (earlier versions can have bugs with MIPS16) ticket 16881 - Ubuntu 14.03.x LTS uses QEMU 2.0 which is has this bug.

The “malta” platform is meant for use with QEMU for emulating a MIPS system.

The malta target supports both big and little-endian variants, pick the matching files and qemu version (qemu-system-mips, or qemu-system-mipsel).

qemu-system-mipsel \
-kernel openwrt-malta-le-vmlinux-initramfs.elf \
-nographic -m 256

In recent enough versions one can enable ext4 root filesystem image building, and since r46269 (:!: only in trunk, it's not part of the 15.05 CC release) it's possible to boot straight from that image (without an initramfs):

qemu-system-mipsel -M malta \
-hda openwrt-malta-le-root.ext4 \
-kernel openwrt-malta-le-vmlinux.elf \
-nographic -append "root=/dev/sda console=ttyS0"

Use the build documentation found on the HiFive Unleashed page. The process described there will generate the bbl.qemu (BBL+vmlinux) image required to boot with QEMU. For reference, use;a=shortlog;h=refs/heads/riscv-201810

Until 4.19 support is merged into openwrt/trunk, the port itself cannot be merged into trunk, and manual builds are required.

RISC-V support is in mainline qemu, refer to

The suggested QEMU startup is:

$ qemu-system-riscv64 -nographic -machine virt \
  -kernel bbl.qemu -append "root=/dev/vda2 ro console=ttyS0" \
  -drive file=sdcard.img,format=raw,id=hd0 \
  -device virtio-blk-device,drive=hd0 \
  -device virtio-net-device,netdev=net0 -netdev user,id=net0 \
  -smp 2

The x86-64 target has support for ESXi images by default. Booting the VMDK / VDI images might not work with newer QEMU versions.

:!: IMG/VDI/VMDK with “-hda” switch do not work with QEMU 2.x.

pc-q35-2.0 / q35 emulates a different machine. With new syntax (no -hda , -net) the IMG / VDI / VMDK works here. Some emulated network cards might have performance issues.


  • 2 HDDs (1 OpenWrt image, 1 data)
  • 1 drive per bus, 6 bus available (until ide.5)
  • 2 Network cards : 1 bridged to host (need higher permission) and 1 “user” (default, NAT 10.x.x.x)

Unpack the archive and expand the F2FS data partition if necessary. This partition is generated on first boot and needs the drive to have free space available. Perform hard factory reset if F2FS is corrupted or failed to set up properly. The exact expanding method depends on your virtualization system.


If you are using KVM/QEMU virtualization.

gunzip openwrt-*.img.gz
qemu-img resize -f raw openwrt-*.img 300M

Resizing rootfs on combined EFI image

Increase base image size to 512M:

qemu-img resize -f raw openwrt-x86-64-generic-squashfs-combined-efi.img 512M

Loop mount the base image so it can be modified:

loop_device=$(losetup -f)
sudo losetup $loop_device openwrt-x86-64-generic-squashfs-combined-efi.img

Fix the GPT partition and increase the root partition size to 100% (512M):

echo -e "OK\nFix" | sudo parted ---pretend-input-tty "$loop_device" print
sudo parted "$loop_device" resizepart 2 100%
sudo parted "$loop_device" print

Remove the loop mount device

sudo losetup -d $loop_device

libvirt + KVM/QEMU

If you are using KVM/QEMU with libvirt management framework. Import the image as-is and stop the first boot on the GRUB screen. Then expand the block device online as follows and continue the boot.

virsh blockresize openwrt vda 300M
virsh vol-resize openwrt 300M default

Other virtualization systems

If you are using other virtualization systems like Proxmox, VMWare ESXi/Workstation, VirtualBox, XenServer/XCP-ng, and any other self-respecting virtualization software it is also possible to expand the drive but you will have to look at its own documentation for guidance.

qemu-system-x86_64 \
-enable-kvm \
-M pc-q35-2.0 \
-drive file=openwrt-x86_64-combined-ext4.vdi,id=d0,if=none \
-device ide-hd,drive=d0,bus=ide.0 \
-drive file=data.qcow2,id=d1,if=none \
-device ide-hd,drive=d1,bus=ide.1 \
-soundhw ac97 \
-netdev bridge,br=virbr0,id=hn0 \
-device e1000,netdev=hn0,id=nic1 \
-netdev user,id=hn1 \
-device e1000,netdev=hn1,id=nic2
qemu-system-x86_64 -M q35 \
-drive file=openwrt-x86_64-combined-ext4.img,id=d0,if=none,bus=0,unit=0 \
-device ide-hd,drive=d0,bus=ide.0

UEFI firmware requires ovmf package installed.

qemu-system-x86_64 \
-enable-kvm -m 1G -drive if=pflash,format=raw,readonly,file=/usr/share/edk2-ovmf/x64/OVMF_CODE.fd \
-drive if=pflash,format=raw,file=my_uefi_vars.fd

QEMU has several options to provide network connectivity to emulated images, see all -net options in qemu(1). Although this option is considered obsolete since QEMU 0.12, it continues to work although it is. The new syntax uses either -nic for emulating a particular embedded board, or it uses the two options -netdev and -device, see the official documentation.

The default networking mode for QEMU is “user mode network stack”.

In this mode, qemu acts as a proxy for outbound TCP/UDP connections. It also provides DHCP and DNS service to the emulated system.

To provide Internet access to the emulated OpenWrt system, use (the example uses an armvirt system, adjust for your setup):

qemu-system-arm -net nic,vlan=0 -net nic,vlan=1 -net user,vlan=1 \
-nographic -M virt -m 64 -kernel lede-17.01.0-r3205-59508e3-armvirt-zImage-initramfs

Here, we set up two network cards inside the emulated OpenWrt system:

  • eth0, used as LAN in OpenWrt (not connected to anything here)
  • eth1, used as WAN in OpenWrt, and connected to qemu that will proxy all TCP/UDP connections towards the Internet

The OpenWrt system should get both an IPv4 and an IPv6 on eth1 (via DHCP/DHCPv6). The ranges will be and fec0::/64 (qemu defaults, see qemu(1) to configure other ranges).

LuCI is the web UI used by OpenWrt. If you want to check how LuCI works or to poke around with LuCI-apps this setup is for you. (the example uses an armvirt system, adjust for your setup)

Note: This setup requires some privileges (CAP_NET_ADMIN and CAP_MKNOD under Linux) so it's easier to run it under sudo

Save the script and edit IMAGE variable to reflect your OpenWrt version, then run it under sudo

# create tap interface which will be connected to OpenWrt LAN NIC
ip tuntap add mode tap $LAN
ip link set dev $LAN up
# configure interface with static ip to avoid overlapping routes
ip addr add dev $LAN
qemu-system-arm \
-device virtio-net-pci,netdev=lan \
-netdev tap,id=lan,ifname=$LAN,script=no,downscript=no \
-device virtio-net-pci,netdev=wan \
-netdev user,id=wan \
-M virt -nographic -m 64 -kernel $IMAGE
# cleanup, delete tap interface created earlier
ip addr flush dev $LAN
ip link set dev $LAN down
ip tuntap del mode tap dev $LAN

How networking works:

  • eth0, used as LAN in OpenWrt, and connected to ledetap0 in host system(static address, providing access to LuCI at
  • eth1, used as WAN in OpenWrt, and connected to qemu that will proxy all TCP/UDP connections towards the Internet

If you configure NICs on embedded systems, which cannot be used via -device, you can access them from the host by forwarding a (high) port in the -nic option using hostfwd=hostip:hostport-guestip:guestport.

For example, to access SSH by ssh root@127.1 -p 1122 from the host on the guest system malta-be, you can use:

qemu-system-mips -M malta -nographic -hda openwrt-malta-be-rootfs-ext4.img \
-kernel openwrt-malta-be-vmlinux.elf -append 'root=/dev/sda console=ttyS0' \
-nic hostfwd=tcp::1122-:22

If the network adapter is a WAN interface, you have to add firewall rules in the guest to allow SSH:

uci -q delete firewall.ssh
uci set firewall.ssh="rule"
uci set"Allow-SSH"
uci set firewall.ssh.src="wan"
uci set firewall.ssh.dest_port="22"
uci set firewall.ssh.proto="tcp"
uci set"ACCEPT"
uci commit firewall
/etc/init.d/firewall restart

(taken from mailing list post by Philip Prindeville)

On my Centos 7.4 KVM host, I did:

To provision 10 VFs per NIC:

cat << EOF > /etc/modprobe.d/sr-iov.conf
# for SR-IOV support
options igb max_vfs=10

This will take effect after the next reboot. Alternatively by unloading and reloading the IGB module.

Create XML files for each NIC you want to support virtualization on:

# cat << EOF > /tmp/hostdev-net0.xml
<forward mode='hostdev' managed='yes'>
<pf dev='eno1'/>
cat << EOF > /tmp/hostdev-net1.xml
<forward mode='hostdev' managed='yes'>
<pf dev='eno2'/>
virsh net-destroy default
virsh net-define /tmp/hostdev-net0.xml
virsh net-autostart hostdev-net0
virsh net-define /tmp/hostdev-net1.xml
virsh net-autostart hostdev-net1

To create the pool of VF interfaces.

Then to add interfaces to VMs, I did:

# cat << EOF > /tmp/new-interface-0.1.xml
<interface type='network'>
<mac address='52:54:00:0d:84:f4'/>
<source network='hostdev-net0'/>
<address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x07' slot='0x10' function='0x0'/>
# Where the ‘0d:84:f4’ is 3 unique bytes
dd status=none bs=1 count=3 if=/dev/urandom | hexdump -e '/1 "%x"\n'
virsh attach-device my-machine-1 /tmp/new-interface-0.1.xml

This will be much faster, but will only work if the architecture of your CPU is the same as the target image (here, ARM cortex-a15).

qemu-system-arm -nographic -M virt,accel=kvm -cpu host -m 64 -kernel openwrt-armvirt-zImage-initramfs
qemu-system-arm -nographic -M virt -m 64 \
-kernel openwrt-armvirt-zImage \
-drive file=openwrt-armvirt-root.ext4,format=raw,if=virtio \
-append 'root=/dev/vda rootwait'
qemu-system-arm -nographic -M virt -m 64 -kernel openwrt-armvirt-zImage \
-fsdev local,id=rootdev,path=root-armvirt/,security_model=none \
-device virtio-9p-pci,fsdev=rootdev,mount_tag=/dev/root \
-append 'rootflags=trans=virtio,version=9p2000.L,cache=loose rootfstype=9p'
# start a named machine
lkvm run -k openwrt-armvirt-zImage -i openwrt-armvirt-rootfs.cpio --name armvirt0
# start with virtio-9p rootfs
lkvm run -k openwrt-armvirt-zImage -d root-armvirt/
# stop "armvirt0"
lkvm stop --name armvirt0
# stop all
lkvm stop --all

This example uses OpenWrt virtualized using Debian, QEMU with KVM and a Lex twitter system with Intel Atom D525 and ICH8M chipset. Normally OpenWrt works on most of the hardware mentioned in the table of hardware (search in this wiki), and also on most of the hardware that support Intel x86 ISA or x86 in the address bar.

Anyway some embedded x86 board have particular hardware that is not always well supported by the OpenWrt platform, even if all the kmod packages are included in the basic image. One of this x86 compatible hardware family are systems based on Intel Atom and ICH8M chipset (maybe also others), like the Lex twitter system 3I525U.

OpenWrt is able to run on that system, but for example, is not able to manage the possibility of having two WAN connections with different metric. The request will be always routed to the interface with higher metric also using ping -I <wan2_interface> Moreover software like Nmap will fail to be bind to certain interfaces. Someone with more knowledge could explain why this happens but as workaround one can use a more complete linux system (for example Debian) as base and then virtualize (virtualization OR qemu OR kvm OR hypervisor in the address bar) openwrt, that in the end requires really a little resources most of the time, or one can assign plenty of resources because at the end the base system is quite powerful.

Debian was installed on a 2 GB CF card through a USB stick and netinstaller, having only the basic system utilities and ssh utilities. 1.1 GB of space were used, 600 MB free and the rest swap.

Install the following packages: apt-get install qemu-kvm bridge-utils libvirt-bin virtinst

  • Qemu-kvm for QEMU and KVM additional software components.
  • bridge-utils for managing bridges in debian
  • libvirt-bin for additional virtualization packages
  • virtinst for handy virtualization management

If you don't want to use any user but just work with root (the objective is to let OpenWrt run on the twitter system, not having a well set up Debian system):

  • Change /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf uncommenting user/group to work as root.
  • restart /etc/init.d/libvirt* entries.

Then we have to prepare the network. Modify /etc/network/interfaces a follows (adapt according to your needs)

auto br0 br1 br2 br3
iface br0 inet dhcp
  bridge_ports eth0
iface br1 inet dhcp
  bridge_ports eth1
iface br2 inet dhcp
  bridge_ports eth2
iface br3 inet dhcp
  bridge_ports eth3

The bridges ( ) are helpful because they allows different network adapters, real or virtual ( network.interfaces to exchange data (as the word 'bridge' suggests) and not only, because the bridge will have a certain mac address but also the virtual interfaces attached to it can have different mac addresses. Here the marvels of the linux networking system have to be explained by someone with more knowledge.

Then we need to create our virtual machine. The additional packages, apart from QEMU, will help here. We can issue the following command, using the x86 generic image placed in the folder /root/openwrt_kvm/:

virt-install --name=openwrt --ram=256 --vcpus=1 --os-type=linux \
--disk path=/root/openwrt_kvm/openwrt-x86-generic-combined-ext4.img,bus=ide \
--network bridge=br0,model=e1000 --import
# be careful to the model, e1000 let's openwrt recognize the interface.

If you want to interact with the system from command line, use virsh. For example to force the shutdown of a virtual machine virsh destroy openwrt or to delete the virtual machine (but not the disk file) virsh undefine openwrt.

For having multiple interfaces

virt-install --name=openwrt --ram=256 --vcpus=1 --os-type=linux \
--disk path=/root/openwrt_kvm/openwrt-x86-generic-combined-ext4.img,bus=ide \
--network bridge=br0,model=e1000 --network bridge=br3,model=e1000 --import

Remember that the console requires ctrl+5 to exit.

To mark a virtual machine for the autostart, type: virsh autostart openwrt.

* Virtual interfaces with macvtap: problems with IPv6 because of multicast * USB-host devices in qemu might not work like on bare metal, might be related to USB3 or driver issues (mt7601u); consider virtualizing whole USB controller via PCIe VFIO.

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  • Last modified: 2024/03/13 09:23
  • by ynezz