Note: bandwidthd in LEDE/OpenWRT 17.01 or higher tracks the SMTP data (ports 25, 465 and 587) while the version in the previous version of OpenWrt (Chaos Calmer and older) tracks the P2P data (Gnutella, eDonkey, etc.). All of the other data (FTP, UDP, TCP, etc.) is tracked the same way in all versions.
Bandwidthd is composed of 4 packages:
The availability of each package varies according to which version of OpenWrt/LEDE you have:
For the bandwidthd package:
opkg install bandwidthd uhttpd /etc/init.d/uhttpd enable /etc/init.d/uhttpd start /etc/init.d/bandwidthd enable /etc/init.d/bandwidthd start
For the bandwidthd-pgsql package (note: do not install uhttpd if you do not plan for the router to perform the graphs):
opkg install bandwidthd-pgsql uhttpd /etc/init.d/uhttpd enable /etc/init.d/uhttpd start /etc/init.d/bandwidthd enable /etc/init.d/bandwidthd start
With all dependencies it uses around 500 kB of storage space. If you have not changes the IP address of your router (192.168.1.1), then the web page with the bandwidthd data will be available at http://192.168.1.1/bandwidthd. If you have changed the IP address of your router, then edit the /etc/config/bandwidthd file to correct the address.
NOTE: This information is old. If you have more recent information about this, please correct the wiki or contact the maintainer of the package to correct the wiki.
Bandwidthd uses a lot of cpu power to process and analyse packages, on average TP-Link TL-WR841ND router with 400 Mhz CPU it maxes out CPU with 100% usage around 3 Mpbs speeds. So if you have faster connection it throttles it down to around 3 Mbps because CPU can't handle more packages.
Note: As of build r31249 this is not necessarily true. While bandwidthd still maxes out at 100% cpu and >4 load average even while idle, the router will happily exceed 70mbps download speeds even with QoS on, which by itself uses >80% cpu at those speeds. In other words, even while bandwidthd is using 100% cpu, the above router will still easily exceed most people's connection speeds without the CPU becoming a limitation.
If the data is stored in a postgresql database with bandwidthd-pgsql and the graphs are made by another system than the OpenWrt router, the CPU requirements is much lighter.
Packages bandwidth, bandwidthd-pgsql and bandwidthd-sqlite use basically the same configuration file: /etc/config/bandwidthd
Each package installs the proper configuration file, and usually requires very little modifications, if any.
The options are the same for the 3 packages, with two additional for bandwidthd-pgsql and two others for bandwidthd-sqlite.
Here are the various options:
option dev: Device to listen on. The default is br-lan.
option subnets: Subnets to collect statistics on. Traffic that matches none of these subnets will be ignored. Syntax is either IP Subnet Mask or CIDR. Ex: “10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0”, “192.168.0.0/16” or “172.16.0.0/12”. The defaults is “192.168.1.0/24”.
option skip_intervals: An interval is 2.5 minutes, this is how many intervals to skip before doing a graphing run. The default is 0.
option graph_cutoff: Graph cutoff is how many k must be transferred by an ip before we bother to graph it. The default is 1024.
option promiscuous: Put interface in promiscuous mode to score to traffic that may not be routing through the host machine. The default is true.
option output_cdf: Log data to cdf file log.cdf. All packages can log to cdf files. These are only useful if you are using the bandwidthd package as the other packages (bandwidthd-pgsql and bandwidthd-sqlite) can store the data in a database. These files are located on the root of the router (/). The cdf files can be read when bandwidthd is started (see the option recover_cdf), which is useful if you reboot the router to recover the bandwidth data. The default is false.
option recover_cdf: Read back the cdf file on startup. See the comments for output_cdf above. The default is false.
option filter: Libpcap format filter string used to control what bandwidthd see's. Please always include “ip” in the string to avoid strange problems. The default is ip.
option graph: Draw Graphs - This default to true to graph the traffic bandwidthd is recording. Usually set this to false if you only want cdf output or you are using the database output option (bandwidthd-pgsql or bandwidthd-sqlite). Bandwidthd will use very little ram and cpu if this is set to false. The defaults is true.
option meta_refresh: Set META REFRESH seconds (default 150, use 0 to disable). Default is 150.
option pgsql_connect_string: Only used for bandwidthd-pgsql. Standard postgres connect string. The default is “user = postgres dbname = bandwidthd host = 192.168.1.1”.
option sensor_id: Used for bandwidthd-pgsql and bandwidthd-sqlite. Arbitrary sensor name. It can be anything you want for bandwidthd-pgsql but it has to be “default” for bandwidthd-sqlite. Default is “openwrt” for bandwidthd-pgsql.
option sqlite_filename: Only used for bandwidthd-sqlite. This is the sqlite database file. Default is “/www/bandwidthd/stats.db”.
The package bandwidthd-php uses another configuration file: /etc/config/bandwidthd-php. Package bandwidthd-sqlite can also use the bandwidthd-php configuration file (bandwidthd-sqlite uses two configuration files: /etc/config/bandwidthd and /etc/config/bandwith-php).
NOTE: the bandwidthd-sqlite package does not provide the /etc/config/bandwidthd-php file: it is not needed as the init file (/etc/init.d/bandwidthd) will provide the bandwidthd application the default graph sizes (900 and 256) and interval (INT_DAILY) and the default sqlite database: /www/bandwidthd/stats.db. Create a /etc/config/bandwidthd-php file for bandwidthd-sqlite if you need to change the default.
Here are the options of the /etc/config/bandwidthd-php configuration file:
option dflt_width: Widthd of the graphs generated. Default is '900'.
option dflt_height: height of the graphs generated. Default is '256'.
option dflt_interval: Defaultinterval for the graphs. The default is 'INT_DAILY'. Options are: INT_DAILY, INT_WEEKLY, INT_MONTHLY and INT_YEARLY.
option host: This is for the host that has the postgresql database. The default is '127.0.0.1' which is the router.
option user: This is the user owning the postgresql database. Default is 'postgres'.
option dbname: This is the name of the postgresql database. Default is 'bandwidthd'.
A /etc/config/bandwidthd-php for bandwidthd-sqlite will have the same structure, but the options host, user and dbname are not needed and are replaced by the following:
option sqlite_dbname “/www/bandwidthd/stats.db”
By default, bandwidthd hosts its statistics at /bandwidthd. All packages (bandwidthd, bandwidthd-pgsql and bandwidthd-sqlite) are set by default to graph and if this is not the behaviour that you want, then change the option graph to false in the configuration file (/etc/config/bandwidthd) For example, if the OpenWRT router's IP address is 192.168.1.1, bandwidthd's stats would be available at http://192.168.1.1/bandwidthd
bandwidthd-pgsql can store in a postgresql database and PHP has to be used to generate the graphs that are available at http://192.168.1.1/phphtdocs/index.php (see below) (of course, change the IP address to the one of the web server hosting the PHP files (your router or whatever web server you are using to graph the data)).
The default bandwidthd installation loses your previous statistics on each reboot and you need more space to save those. To keep statistics it is needed to modify “/etc/config/bandwidthd”.
You need to change “option output_cdf true” and “option recover_cdf true” and “option sqlite_filename 'file.db' ”
config bandwidthd option dev br-lan option subnets "192.168.1.0/24" option skip_intervals 0 option graph_cutoff 1024 option promiscuous true option output_cdf true option recover_cdf true option filter ip option graph true option meta_refresh 150 option SQLite_filename "/path/to/file.db" # file gets created automatically and default path works pretty well
After modifying both of the files, restart the service. Afterwards, you will get a file and directory structure on your external mount like this:
root@openwrt:~# ls -la /mnt/usb/bandwidthd/ drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 1024 Aug 25 12:21 . drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 1024 Aug 25 00:39 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 158 Aug 25 00:40 bandwidthd.conf drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 2048 Aug 25 00:40 htdocs -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 50034 Aug 25 12:21 log.1.0.cdf -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 22204 Aug 25 12:21 log.2.0.cdf -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 6698 Aug 25 12:10 log.3.0.cdf -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 529 Aug 25 00:39 log.4.0.cdf
Bandwidthd now has support for external databases: it is provided by the bandwidthd-pgsql package: the bandwidthd package does not support this. This system consists of 3 major parts, and each part can be on a different server:
Using Bandwidthd with a database has many advantages, such as much lower overhead, because graphs are only graphed on demand. And much more flexibility, SQL makes building new reports easy, and php+sql greatly improves the interactivity of the reports.
It is strongly recommended to use the router only to collect the data and store it to another server running postgres. That same server can also be running the web server and use PHP to generate the graphs, but generating the graphs can take a lot of CPU time for a router and the various packages (postgresql, php) uses a lot of memory space that most router do not have.
As a prerequisite for these instructions, you must have Postgresql server installed and working for the database, as well as a web server that supports php for the web server that will generate the graphs. Consult https://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?id=11812 to have more information on installing postgresql on OpenWrt. For other OSes (Linux, NetBSD, Unix, etc.) consult the help on the respective OS.
Database Setup: Note that the database can reside on a remote computer and does not have to be on the OpenWrt router. If not using the router for the database, the required files for the setup can be found at http://bandwidthd.sourceforge.net/.
In addition, you should schedule bd_pgsql_purge.sh to run every so often. I recommend running it weekly. This script outputs sql statements that aggregate the older data points in your database in order to reduce the amount of data that needs to be slogged through in order to generate yearly, monthly, and weekly graphs.
Example to be run as the postgres user:
bd_pgsql_purge.sh | psql bandwidthd postgres
Will connect to the bandwidthd database on local host as the user postgres and summarize the data.
Bandwidthd Setup: Here is the /etc/config/bandwidthd file in the bandwidthd-pgsql package:
config bandwidthd option dev br-lan option subnets "192.168.1.0/24" option skip_intervals 0 option graph_cutoff 1024 option promiscuous true option output_cdf false option recover_cdf false option filter ip option graph true option meta_refresh 150 option pgsql_connect_string "user = postgres dbname = bandwidthd host = 192.168.1.1" option sensor_id "openwrt"
The default configuration file may work, but chances are that you will have to modify it. Modify the following lines:
option graph false By default this is true so you can at least get some graph at http://192.168.1.1/bandwidthd even if the pgsql settings are not adequate. If you plan to only use PHP to obtain your graphs, then set it at false. option pgsql_connect_string "user = postgres dbname = bandwidthd host = 192.168.1.1" Change the user variable to the proper username Change the dbname variable to the database name (by default it is bandwidthd) Change the host variable to the IP address (or the domain name) of the postghresql server option sensor_id "openwrt" Change the name to the name that you want for your sensor: the name you give is not really critical.
Simply start bandwidthd (/etc/init.d/bandwidthd start), and after a few minutes data should start appearing in your database. If not, check syslog (logread) for error messages. (see https://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/log.essentials if you want more information on syslog in OpenWRT)
Web Server Setup: Note that the web server can be on a remote web server and does not have to reside on the OpenWrt router. Consult http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/php for installation of PHP on OpenWrt. For other OSes (Linux, NetBSD, Unix, etc.) consult the help on the respective OS. You will also have to configure the web server to work with PHP. Running this on OpenWrt takes about 2 MB of storage space for the various packages.
You should now be able to access the web application and see you graphs. All graphing is done by graph.php, all parameters are passed to it in it's url. You can create custom urls to pull custom graphs from your own index pages, or use the canned reporting system.
One advantage of bandwidthd is the ability to provide the bandwidth usage of each host in a network. If you want to monitor the Internet usage of each host in your network, you can set bandwidthd in an OpenWrt system between the Internet router and the network.
Here is the way that I do it in my home:
NOTE: the TP-WDR3600 also provides WiFi for the private network.
This small diagram may help you understand:
+----------+ +---------------------+ +--------+ +-----------------+ | Internet | | TP-WDR3600 1|----| Switch |---| Private network | +----------+ | OpenWrt | +--------+ +-----------------+ | | | | | |WAN: no connection 2|-- +-----------------+ +--------+ | | | | Postgresql and | | Router |------|3 4|-- | web php server | +--------+ +---------------------+ +-----------------+
Here is the /etc/network configuration files of my TP-WDR3600:
config interface 'loopback' option ifname 'lo' option proto 'static' option ipaddr '127.0.0.1' option netmask '255.0.0.0' config globals 'globals' option ula_prefix 'xxxx:xxxx:xxxx::/48' config interface 'lan' option ifname 'eth0.1' option force_link '1' option type 'bridge' option proto 'static' option netmask '255.255.255.0' option ip6assign '60' option dns '192.168.xxx.xxx' option ipaddr '192.168.xxx.xxx' option gateway '192.168.xxx.xxx' option delegate '0' config switch option name 'switch0' option reset '1' option enable_vlan '1' option mirror_source_port '0' option mirror_monitor_port '0' config switch_vlan option device 'switch0' option vlan '1' option vid '1' option ports '0t 2 3' config switch_vlan option device 'switch0' option vlan '2' option ports '0t 1' option vid '2' config switch_vlan option device 'switch0' option vlan '3' option vid '3' option ports '0t 4' config switch_vlan option device 'switch0' option vlan '4' option vid '4' option ports '0t 5' config interface 'mon1' option proto 'none' option ifname 'eth0.3' config interface 'mon2' option proto 'none' option ifname 'eth0.4' config interface 'sniff' option proto 'static' option ifname 'eth0.3 eth0.4' option type 'bridge'
And here is the /etc/config/bandwidthd file:
config bandwidthd option dev br-sniff option subnets "192.168.xxx.xxx/24" option skip_intervals 0 option graph_cutoff 1024 option promiscuous true option output_cdf false option recover_cdf false option filter ip option graph true option meta_refresh 150 option pgsql_connect_string "user = postgres dbname = bandwidthd host = 192.168.xxx.xxx" option sensor_id "my_sensor_name"