The TP-Link TL-WPA8630P v2 is a Range Extender with wired Ethernet, Wi-Fi and PowerLine Communication (PLC) interfaces. It has one IEEE 802.11b/g/n 2.4GHz radio, one IEEE 802.11a/n/ac 5GHz radio, three IEEE 802.3u/ab Gigabit Ethernet ports and one IEEE 1901 Homeplug AV2 Powerline interface. The router has decent CPU performance and memory size but limited flash. The wired Ethernet and PLC interfaces are connected to the router CPU via the internal Ethernet switch. The PLC boots from its own flash and runs independently of the router. The device comes in 2 variants: Passthrough “P” models and non-passthrough models. The “Passthrough” is simply a direct wired connection between the electrical socket and plug to give the user an extra power socket, otherwise the rest of the hardware and firmware are functionally identical.
The default stock configuration bridges the wired, Wi-Fi and PowerLine interfaces. The main use case is to extend the coverage of a LAN/Wi-Fi network throughout the home using the existing electrical wiring. This is particularly useful for houses with thick walls and poor Wi-Fi signal propagation but with good quality electrical cables.
The development branch can contain experimental code that is under active development and should not be used for production environments. Snapshot images may support additional hardware; however, it is experimental, considered unstable, and sometimes won't compile.
Prebuilt snapshot images do not come with any web interface or GUI. You will need to be comfortable using a command line and remote shell to install one yourself → How to install LuCI
Support for this device is new and not yet part of the stable OpenWRT release. The daily snapshot images work most of the time, but as OpenWRT is under very active development, every once in a while there are code changes that can break booting the device.
Because this particular device has no known easy way to recover from that situation (see debricking), you should wait until the next stable release of OpenWRT comes out, at which point these images will also include LuCI.
Recommended if you want to install now: Until the stable release comes out, you can use one of these tested and infrequently built firmwares from here (LuCI included) while following the rest of this wiki.
If you get a “Wrong file” message during firmware upgrade, try renaming the file to something shorter like openwrt-firmware.bin.
To determine whether your device is Supported and which OpenWRT firmware to use, lookup this table using your device's Hardware Model and current Firmware Version.
You should only install the OpenWRT firmware listed in this table for your specific model and firmware version. Installing the wrong firmware could render your device unbootable and irrecoverable. See “Flash Layout” for more details why. If you are running a version not listed here, please ask in the Forum so this table can be updated.
Where to find this information:
Where: On the barcode sticker on the back of the device. (Not the -KIT model on the packaging)
Example: Model: TL-WPA8630P(EU) Ver: 2.0
Where: In the Web UI of the device under “System Tools → Firmware Upgrade”
No: Same SupportList entry with different partition layouts. Problematic OS/filesystem split, may never be supported. Don't upgrade to this stock version!
Each stock partition layout needs a specific OpenWRT firmware with a matching partition layout. This is to enable OpenWRT to boot and run correctly, and to not overwrite essential stock partitions to allow the user to revert back to the original firmware. Installing firmware with a mismatching partition layout can make the device unbootable or overwrite critical data.
Some device models have multiple different partition layout across different versions of the stock firmware. Those models are not officially supported by OpenWRT. This is because it is not possible to prevent on them the installation of a wrong OpenWRT firmware with a mismatching partition layout. Only models with one partition layout per SupportList entry are supported.
Why: The stock TP-Link firmware upgrade process checks for a matching Hardware Version (i.e. SupportList entry) and an increased version number in new firmware files. The problem for OpenWRT and other custom firmware is that there is no way to safeguard against supplying an image with a matching SupportList entry but a mismatching partition table. So to avoid this scenario, OpenWRT leaves out SupportList entries that have those conflicts from the official images. If you have one of those devices, you'll have to use an unsupported workaround.
While care has been taken to limit the current OpenWRT images from being installable on the wrong devices, future firmware versions not listed here might have different partition layouts and hence need a different OpenWRT firmware to work correctly, so in any case, you should always choose a known supported version from this page.
The partition table md5sum is calculated from the original stock firmware upgrade file with this command. Matching md5sums implies matching partition tables.
See “snapshot” warnings in installation which also apply to images produced here.
Even though this device has 8M of flash, there is only 5.8Mb available for the kernel and rootfs partitions. This can make installing packages difficult, e.g. LuCI may not install due to lack of space.
To work around this, you can use the imagebuilder to add and remove packages to the root SquashFS ROM partition. This is useful for packages with many small files, e.g. LuCI, as SquashFS has better packing and compression than installing later on the JFFS2 /overlay partition.
Browse to http://192.168.1.1/cgi-bin/luci/mini/system/upgrade/ LuCI Upgrade URL
Upload image file for sysupgrade to LuCI
Wait for reboot
Terminal Upgrade Process
If you don't have a GUI (LuCI) available, you can alternatively upgrade via the command line.
There is one command line methods for upgrading:
Note: It is important that you put the firmware image into the ramdisk (/tmp) before you start flashing.
Login as root via SSH on 192.168.1.1, then enter the following commands:
Reverting to Stock
Download the exact same version of the TP-Link firmware you had before installing OpenWRT, and prepare it using the tool tplink-safeloader from the OpenWrt Image Builder:
You should only revert back to the exact same firmware version the device was running before OpenWRT was installed. With this method, it is possible to accidentally flash incompatible firmware to your device and prevent it from booting, so triple check you are using the right one. When in doubt, ask in the forums.
The only known ways to debrick the device require opening it up, which is difficult and hazardous as it contains live voltages. See opening_the_case below. Avoid this if you can!
If u-boot still works: Connect to the Serial console and enter u-boot commands to tftp boot and read/write memory.
Otherwise: Seperate the router board, and restore the SPI flash directly using a Pomona SOIC-8 clip with a flash programmer or SBC (e.g. Raspberry Pi). You will need to ask on the forums for a firmware dump.
The factory-uboot partition includes a “HTTP web server for web failsafe mode” which can perform a firmware upgrade. How can this be started from a bricked device without opening the case?
→ Basic configuration After flashing, proceed with this.
Set up your Internet connection, configure wireless, configure USB port, etc.
The default network configuration is:
LAN & WiFi
LAN ports (1 to 3), Powerline LAN port (4)
WiFi 5 GHz
WiFi 2.4 GHz
Switch Ports (for VLANs)
LAN 4 - Powerline
Powerline Network Membership Key
Like most consumer powerline devices, The PLC comes setup out-of-the-box using the default Network Membership Key based on the “HomePlugAV” password. For more details (including instructions on changing this for other devices), see here
On OpenWRT, you can change it easily with the following, or in LuCI using the “Powerline Set NMK” command on this page.
By default, the Powerline and Ethernet LAN ports are all connected to the switch on VLAN 1 (eth0.1), which is bridged with the Wi-Fi interfaces into br-lan. This covers the use case of extending an existing network.
If you want to configure the Powerline port as a seperate routable interface isolated from the LAN, you can assign it to a seperate VLAN. Note that packets going between the LAN and Powerline ports will then be routed through the CPU, which is slower than just going through the switch. See switch_configuration for more information. This will also change the interface plctool needs to send packets to.
Reassigning the port VLAN ID can be done in LuCI → Network → Switch, or via the CLI. For example:
# Remove Powerline port from switch VLAN 1
uci set network.@switch_vlan.ports="0t 2 3 4"# Add Powerline port to switch VLAN 2
uci add network switch_vlan
uci set network.@switch_vlan[-1].device="switch0"
uci set network.@switch_vlan[-1].description="Powerline"
uci set network.@switch_vlan[-1].vlan=2
uci set network.@switch_vlan[-1].vid=2
uci set network.@switch_vlan[-1].ports="0t 5"# Create DHCP WAN connection using switch VLAN 2 interface
uci set network.wan=interface
uci set network.wan.proto='dhcp'
uci set network.wan.ifname='eth0.2'
uci commit network
→ hardware.button on howto use and configure the hardware button(s).
Here, we merely name the buttons, so we can use them in the above Howto.
The TP-Link TL-WPA8630P has the following buttons:
To reproduce the functionality of the `LED` and `Pair` buttons in the stock firmware, you can copy+paste these commands into a terminal on the router:
This device contains its own unenclosed power supply. When connected to power, parts inside the case are live at 100-230V mains voltage and must be handled with extreme care to avoid serious and potentially fatal injury!
Under normal operation you should never need to open the device. If you need to do so (e.g. to restore the flash on a bricked device), please consider sending the device to an experienced embedded engineer on the forums, or just buying a new device.
Note: This will void your warranty!
Describe what needs to be done to open the device, e.g. remove rubber feet, adhesive labels, screws, …
To remove the cover and open the device, do a/b/c
Main PCB: Insert photo of PCB
→ port.serial general information about the serial port, serial port cable, etc.
Is a 10k pull up resistor needed for reliable connection?
How to connect to the Serial Port of this specific device:
Connect to the 3.3V UART on J1. Only TX, RX and GND should be necessary.
Insert photo of PCB with markings for serial port
Serial connection parameters
for TP-Link TL-WPA8630P v2
→ port.jtag general information about the JTAG port, JTAG cable, etc.
Replace EXAMPLE by real values.
How to connect to the JTAG Port of this specific device: Insert photo of PCB with markings for JTAG port
toh/tp-link/tp-link_tl-wpa8630p_v2.txt · Last modified: 2020/11/10 20:24 by jwmullally